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Here we need to form all the possible substrings from input string, varying from length 1 to the input string length. The output will include the input string also. The logic is to iterate loop from Length-1 to 0 and swap each element with last element. The logic is to iterate loop from 0 to Length-1 and swap each element with first element. The logic is to find a positive integer less than or equal to the square root of input integer. If there is a divisor of number that is less than the square root of number, then there will be a divisor of number that is greater than square root of number.

The method should convert this 1-D array to a 2-D array matrix of given row and column. We will create matrix row wise. Each hour on the clock represent an angle of 30 degrees divided by In this chapter you learned how to write C code in notepad as well as visual studio environment. You also learned how to execute your program in both environments.

In next session, you will learn about variables and data types in C. Toggle navigation.

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Less Theory Rich Programming. In this chapter you will learn: How to compile and run c code in notepad as well as visual studio?

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Most object access is done through safe object references, which always either point to a "live" object or have the well-defined null value; it is impossible to obtain a reference to a "dead" object one that has been garbage collected , or to a random block of memory. An unsafe pointer can point to an instance of an 'unmanaged' value type that does not contain any references to garbage-collected objects, array, string, or a block of stack-allocated memory.

Code that is not marked as unsafe can still store and manipulate pointers through the System.

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IntPtr type, but it cannot dereference them. Managed memory cannot be explicitly freed; instead, it is automatically garbage collected. Garbage collection addresses the problem of memory leaks by freeing the programmer of responsibility for releasing memory that is no longer needed. Checked exceptions are not present in C in contrast to Java. This has been a conscious decision based on the issues of scalability and versionability.

This was a design decision by the language's lead architect to avoid complication and simplify architectural requirements throughout CLI. When implementing multiple interfaces that contain a method with the same signature, i. However, unlike Java , C supports operator overloading. C has the ability to utilize LINQ through the. NET Framework. Though primarily an imperative language, C 2.

C has a unified type system. A unified type system implies that all types, including primitives such as integers, are subclasses of the System. Object class. For example, every type inherits a ToString method. CTS separates data types into two categories: [64]. Instances of value types do not have referential identity nor referential comparison semantics - equality and inequality comparisons for value types compare the actual data values within the instances, unless the corresponding operators are overloaded.

Value types are derived from System.

ValueType , always have a default value, and can always be created and copied. Some other limitations on value types are that they cannot derive from each other but can implement interfaces and cannot have an explicit default parameterless constructor. Examples of value types are all primitive types, such as int a signed bit integer , float a bit IEEE floating-point number , char a bit Unicode code unit , and System. DateTime identifies a specific point in time with nanosecond precision.

Other examples are enum enumerations and struct user defined structures. In contrast, reference types have the notion of referential identity - each instance of a reference type is inherently distinct from every other instance, even if the data within both instances is the same. This is reflected in default equality and inequality comparisons for reference types, which test for referential rather than structural equality, unless the corresponding operators are overloaded such as the case for System. In general, it is not always possible to create an instance of a reference type, nor to copy an existing instance, or perform a value comparison on two existing instances, though specific reference types can provide such services by exposing a public constructor or implementing a corresponding interface such as ICloneable or IComparable.

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Examples of reference types are object the ultimate base class for all other C classes , System. String a string of Unicode characters , and System. Array a base class for all C arrays. Boxing is the operation of converting a value-type object into a value of a corresponding reference type. Unboxing is the operation of converting a value of a reference type previously boxed into a value of a value type.

A boxed object of type T can only be unboxed to a T or a nullable T. The C specification details a minimum set of types and class libraries that the compiler expects to have available. In addition to the standard CLI specifications, there are many commercial and community class libraries that build on top of the.


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NET framework libraries to provide additional functionality. The following is a very simple C program, a version of the classic " Hello world " example:. The above line imports all types in the System namespace.


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  8. For example, the Console class used later in the source code is defined in the System namespace, meaning it can be used without supplying the full name of the type which includes the namespace. Above is a class definition. Everything between the following pair of braces describes Program.

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    This declares the class member method where the program begins execution. NET runtime calls the Main method. Note: Main may also be called from elsewhere, like any other method, e. The static keyword makes the method accessible without an instance of Program.

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    Each console application's Main entry point must be declared static. Otherwise, the program would require an instance, but any instance would require a program. To avoid that irresolvable circular dependency , C compilers processing console applications like that above report an error, if there is no static Main method. The void keyword declares that Main has no return value.

    This line writes the output. Console is a static class in the System namespace. It provides an interface to the standard input, output, and error streams for console applications. The program calls the Console method WriteLine , which displays on the console a line with the argument, the string "Hello, world! This example is similar to the previous example, except that it generates a dialog box that contains the message "Hello, World!

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    Another useful library is the System. Drawing library, which is used to programmatically draw images. For example:. This process usually takes 6—9 months.